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French Volunteers in Spain 1936 - 1939 : Contribution to a Collective Biography of the French Anarchist Movement
David Berry

"Nommer le militant «obscur» redonne son épaisseur au réel, et annule l’anonymat où le pouvoir voudrait le laisser. [...]"

L’important tient à l’esprit de la démarche: s’attacher aux vies et individualités obscures, c’est questionner la représentativité fondée sur l’analyse de l’encadrement et des cadres d’un mouvement. Pour comprendre ce mouvement, la vie, les dires, les actes des chefs ne peuvent suffire.

Geneviève Fraisse, ‘Du bon usage de l’individu féministe’, p.48, in Vingtième siècle no.14 (April 1987), pp.45-54.

APPENDICES

Appendix 1: List of French libertarians present in Spain during the civil war and of French volunteers with the anarchist militias.

Appendix 2: Thirty-four French volunteers killed in Spain.

Appendix 3: Fifteen of the French members of the International Group of the Durruti Column killed during the nationalist offensive at Perdiguera, 17 October 1936.

Appendix 4: Forty French members of the Centurie Sébastien Faure.

Appendix 5: Twenty-four members of the Section française, Barcelona, 1936-37.

Appendix 6: Victims of political repression? French libertarians imprisoned in Spain during the civil war

APPENDIX 1:

List of French libertarians present in Spain during the civil war and of French volunteers with the anarchist militias

Alary, Lucien

Albert, Pierre

Albertini, Charles

Albertini, Jean

Aldenier, Auguste

Allune

Allusse/Alusse, Georges

Altaserre, René

Amiel, Laurent

Anderson, Louis

Andouin/Audouin, Maurice

Angelo, Joseph

Ansaldi, Jaques

Aubrion, Armand

Badard/Baudard, Roger

Barbier

Bardy, Thérèse

Baudard/Baudart, Juliette

Bégué/Béguez, Jean

Benabarie, Sauit

Berard, Mario

Berge/Bergé, Raymond

Bernard

Berthollet

Berthonnieux

Bertrand/Bertraut, Laurent

Besaucon (Besançon?), Armand

Besnard, Pierre

Bianchi

Billet, Clovis

Blanchard, Gaston

Blédine

Blicq, Achille

Blot, Roger

Boff, Emile

Boglio, Louis

Boirlot, Jean

Bonin, Raoul

Bonnivard, J.

Bonuel, Robert

Borichef, Henri

Boucher/Bouches, Raoul

Boudoux

Bourdois, R.E.

Bouvet, Pierre

Cabanes, René

Cadet

Calvo, Joseph

Canc/Cane, Joseph

Cannone, Alphonse Sauveur

Carbonic/Carbonie, Lucien

Cardeur, Alexis

Carpentier, Charles

Casdan, Ernest

Casteu, Eugénie (née Trébuquet)

Chademier, Roger

Chapeyron, François

Charrang[eau?], Georges

Charrodeau, Henri

Chatelain, Lucien

Chatris

Chauvet, Etienne

Chazanoff, Jules (aka Chazoff)

Chéron, Georges

Colder, Jacques

Colin

Colin, Raoul Ernest

Colombet, Philippe

Coniza, Jules

Cottin, Emile

Cottin, Henri

Couanault, Constant Emile Marie

Coudry, Roger (pseud. of Boutefeu, Roger)

Couillard, Henri

Coyne, Sénateur

Crepin, Jean

Crespin, Charles

Cros, L. Henri

Crupeaut, Robert

D., Jean

D., R.

Da Rif

Daniel, René

Danjean, Henri Auguste

Danné, Jules

Danon, Félix

Dausse, Lucien

Dautry, Jean

Defèche, Emile

Dejoucklere, Désiré

Delalain, Jean

Delaruelle, Henri

Delmont

Desmedt, Auguste

Dessaigne

Détang, Max

Détienne

Diaz, Joseph

Ducourneau, Gabriel

Dupoux, Jean

Durel, Charles

Duvernet, Georges

Espigulet/Epluget/Espilugé/Espilugé-Vidal, Michel

Ethes/Etaes, Louis

Faivre, Georges

Farah, Joseph

Faucier, Nicolas

Faure, Sébastien

Feldsten/Felsdein/Felstein, Pauline

Fernandes/Fernandez, Jean

Ferrand, Jean

Ferrero, Emile

Ferrier, Charles

Foilleret, Roger

Fons

Fontaneau/Foutaneau, Emile

Fortin, Fernand/Ferdinand Félix

Fourneyrou, Gabriel

François, Roger

Frédéric, Gaston

Froment, André

Gaby

Galissot, René

Gandolf/Gandolfo, Isidore

Garate, Asencio

Gascon, Frédéric

Gérard, Marcel

Germain, Georges

Gessaume, Georges

Giancoli, Raymond

Gilet, Jean

Giral/Giralt, Jean

Girardin, Georges

Girbe, Suzanne

Godard, Félix

Godard, Pierre

Goirand, Jules (aka Transcoserp)

Gomez, Henri

Gorloff, Léonide

Gotcheff

Gouje, Georges

Greffier, Marcel

Gregorio, Valentino

Grignon

Grimaldi, Dominique

Grimalt, Paul

Guéguen, Jean

Guerre/Guerra

Guilbert, Marcel

Guillamic/Guillamie, Camille

H., B.

Hache, Alphonse

Hachon, Gaston

Hack, Jean

Hans, Suzanne

Haussard, Lucien

Henry/Henri

Huart, Lucien

Isba, François

Jano

Jorat, Georges (pseud. of Georges Sossenko)

Kasentcheff, Cristo

Kokoczinski, Georgette

Krops, Romano

Lacrosille/Lacroisille/Lacroisille-Pécond, Henri (aka Marseille)

Ladmiral, Gaston

Lafont

Lamberet, Renée

Lambert, Frédéric

Landru, Robert

Lapeyre, Paul

Lashortes (pseud. of Catalogne, Maurice)

Laurac, René Jean

Léger, Robert

Legrand, Gaston

Le Meillour, Pierre

Lemer, Joseph

Lemère

Lemoine, Marius

Lenne, Loïc René

Lesenne, Alfred

Lessaffre, André

Lesuer, Joseph

Letdely, Fernand

Leval, Gaston (pseud. of Piller, Pierre Robert)

Lévysse

Leyteron, Jean

Lhebert

Lichtenstein, Louis

Lobel, Alfred

Loiseau, Marcel

Longuez/Longuet, Georges Adolphe

Lopez, Glorie François

Lopez, Lucien

Lopez, Raoul André

Lucien, H.

Machado, Francis

Malet/Malot, Arthur

Marchal, Charles Fernand

Marin, Joseph

Marsaud, Henri

Martin, Jean

Martin, Paul

Martin, René Louis

Masa/Mesa, Lucien

Mayol, Jean

Meller, Bernard

Mellinas, Juan Ramon

Métant/Métaut/Métaux, Fernand Albert

Meurant, Hoche

Meurant, Léa

Meyer, Pierre

Michel, Jean

Millon, Jean

Mirande, Alexandre

Missamier, Gaston

Miston

Mollot, André

Monclin, Roger

Monnard, Georges

Montagut, Marcel

Montégud

Monvoisin, Jean-Baptiste René

Moreno, Albert

Morin, Emilienne

Mougeot, André

Mouret/Muret/Meuret, Raymond

Mousset, Armand

Mouysset

Nada, Antoine

Nan, Victor Marie

Navel, Georges

Neveu, René-A.

O., S.

Odéon, Pierre (pseud. of Perrin, Pierre)

Odette

Olivier, Léon (aka La Goupille)

Ortolani, René

Paille, Henri

Pakschver/Patschver/Patsehver/Parschver

Palau/Paleu, Joseph

Pantais, Raymond

Pantais, Roger François

Pareti, Armand

Parot, Gaston

Pasquet, Henri

Pasquet, Robert

Patou, Hélène

Patou, Lucien

Perez, Jean

Périer/Perrier, Albert (aka Germinal)

Perron, Joseph

Person

Peyron, Edouard

Philippe

Pienne, André

Platrier, H.

Pradeau/Prados, Ernest

Prince, Mme

Prince, René (pseud. of Desbois, Georges Marcel)

Prudhommeaux, André

Prudhommeaux, Dori (née Ris)

Puerto, José

R.

R????s[?], Yves?

R??s?, Bernard/Fernand

Radigales, M.

Rajaud, Maurice

Rapporport, Eugène

Raymond

Recoulis/Recoules/Recouls, Louis

Regner, Georges

René

Ridel, Charles (aka Mercier-Vega, Louis)

Rivals, Louis

Robles, E.

Roche, Georges Joseph

Rodrigues, Juan Cortes

Rohard, Fernand

Rouleau [?], Fernand

Rousseles, Albert

Ruiz, Amador

S???

Sabatier, David

Saïl, Mohamed

Sarasain/Sarazain, Charles

Schlauder, Marcel

Schroth, Willi

Schwab, Julien/Juliano

Schwarz

Segara, Augustin

Seguin, Roger

Sellenet, Jean/Jules (aka J.-S.Boudoux)

Spoh, Charles

Staés, Maurice

Styr-Nhair

Teulé, René

Thébault, Alfred

Thiebault, Pierre

Thourault

Tissier, Charles

Torris

Trébuquet

Tricheux, Alphonse

Tricheux, Eugène

Tricheux, Marius

Tricheux, Noëla

Tricheux, Pauline

Trontin, Jean

Turmo, Antoine

Urbau, Philippe

Urvoas, Ivan/Yvan Noël

Uytdewilligen, Gérard

V., Léo

Valente, Emile

Valentin, Garcia

Valette, Emile

Varnera, François

Vaucher, Pierre

Vela, Henri

Vera, Marcel

Vidal, Dominique

Vignau, François

Villetort, Jean

Vinet, Fernand

Vitrac, Yves

Wastine, Léon

Weil, Simone

Weil/Weill, Gaston

Wittner, Alexander

Wullens, Maurice

Ylivellon [?]

APPENDIX 2:

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'> 

"Times New Roman"'> 

 

Thirty-four French libertarians or volunteers with anarchist militias who died in Spain[1]

 

"Times New Roman"'>Badard/Baudard, Roger

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Perdiguera, 17 October 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Baudard/Baudart, Juliette

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Perdiguera, 17 October 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Bégué/Béguez, Jean

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Belchite, September 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Berard, Mario

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Perdiguera, 17 October 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Berge/Bergé, Raymond

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Perdiguera, 17 October 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Berthomieu/Berthonnieux

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Perdiguera, 17 October 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Boff, Emile

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Casa del Campo, 12 November 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Boudoux

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Perdiguera, 17 October 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Casteu, Eugénie[2]

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>1937.

"Times New Roman"'>Charrang[eau?], Georges

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Perdiguera, 17 October 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Chatelain, Lucien

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>March 1937.

"Times New Roman"'>Colombet, Philippe

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Codo, August 1937.

"Times New Roman"'>Cottin, Emile

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Farlete, 8 September 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Coyne, Sénateur [?]

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Barcelona (bombing raid).

"Times New Roman"'>Delalain, Jean

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Perdiguera, 17 October 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Delaruelle, Henri

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Perdiguera, 17 October 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Détang, Max

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Missing at Albacete, December 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Ferrand, Jean

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Barna, 5 May 1937.

"Times New Roman"'>Fons

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Santa Quiteria, April 1937.

"Times New Roman"'>Galissot, René

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Perdiguera, 17 October 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Gérard, Marcel

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Missing at Teruel, December 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Gessaume, Georges

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Missing at Tortosa, 26 July 1938.

"Times New Roman"'>Giral/Giralt, Jean

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Perdiguera, 17 October 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Greffier, Marcel

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Cuesta de la Reina.

"Times New Roman"'>Hans, Suzanne

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Farlete, November 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Kokoczinski, Georgette

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Perdiguera, 17 October 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Lemère

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Farlete, 8 September 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Meller, Bernard

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Missing at Huesca, November 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Monnard, Georges

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Quinto, December 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>R????s[?], Yves [?]

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Perdiguera, 17 October 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Rajaud, Maurice

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>No further information.

"Times New Roman"'>Recoulis [/les/ls], Louis

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Farlete, November 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Trontin, Jean

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Perdiguera, 17 October 1936.

"Times New Roman"'>Vitrac, Yves

10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'>Perdiguera, 17 October 1936.

APPENDIX 3:

 

 

 

Fifteen[3] of the French members of the International Group of the Durruti Column killed during the nationalist offensive at Perdiguera, 17 October 1936

 

 

Badard/Baudard, Roger

No further information.

Baudard/Baudart, Juliette

No further information.

Berard, Mario

No further information.

Berge/Bergé, Raymond

Berge/Bergé had left for Spain in September.

Berthomieu/Berthonnieux

Berthomieu, &#821general delegate’ of the International Group since its creation, had been a captain of artillery during the Great War, and had been living in Barcelona for some time.

Boudoux

Boudoux died alongside several other members of the St.-Denis anarchist group of whom we know nothing.

Charrang[eau?], Georges

No further information. Is this Chaffaugeon of the Jeunesses Communistes of Lyon, who was also a member of the International Group and who died in the same battle?[4]

Delalain, Jean

No further information.

Delaruelle, Henri

Actually a member of the ‘Italian Column’, according to one document, wheras he died at Perdiguera according to another.

Galissot, René

No further information.

Giral/Giralt, Jean

Giral/Giralt was a member of the International Group of the Durruti Column from very early on. He was involved in the taking of Siétamo and was hospitalized in Barcelona.

His death at Perdiguera was reported in le Combat syndicaliste, which suggests he may have been a member of the CGTSR. According to Ridel, Giralt was a member of the Paris JEUNES, and “fell as he was taking position at the head of his group”.[5]

Kokoczinski, Georgette

‘Georgette’, as she was referred to, was captured and executed by the Francoists. She was a nurse with the Durruti Column, but also took part in attacks behind nationalist lines with the ‘Sons of the Night’ (Hijos de la Noche).[6] font-family:"Times New Roman"'> According to Paz she was a “sort of mascot of the column”. She had been well-known to those involved with le Libertaire "Times New Roman"'>, l’Insurgé, l’en dehors and especially la Revue anarchiste, and had performed at anarchist ‘galas’ under the name of Mimosa.

R????s[?], Yves [?]

Name barely legibile. No further information.

Trontin, Jean

Trontin was a supporter of Pivert’s Gauche révolutionnaire and a member of the Section socialiste of Oyonnax (Ain), though he lived in Colombes (Seine) and was sometimes active in Lyon.[7] font-family:"Times New Roman"'>

Vitrac, Yves

No further information.

 

 

APPENDIX 4:

 

 

 

Forty-two French members of the

Centurie Sébastien Faure

 

Angelo, Joseph

No further information.

Blot, Roger

No further information.

Bonin, Raoul

No further information.

Carbonic/Carbonie, Lucien

No further information.

Chatelain, Lucien

Having gone to Spain early on in the civil war, Chatelain died in combat in March 1937. Representatives of the Union anarchiste, the anarchist Comité pour l’Espagne libre font-family:"Times New Roman"'> and le Libertaire attended his funeral.

Colder, Jacques

Colder was a member of the CNT.

Couillard, Henri

No further information.

Danné, Jules

No further information.

Dejoucklere, Désiré

No further information.

Ducourneau, Gabriel

No further information.

Duvernet, Georges

No further information.

Ethes/Etaes, Louis

No further information.

Ferrero, Emile

No further information.

Foilleret, Roger

No further information.

Gessaume, Georges

According to the DBMOF font-family:"Times New Roman"'>, a Georges ‘Gesseaume’ volunteered to fight in Republican Spain, fought at Zapadores and was posted missing at Tortosa, 26 July 1938.

Goirand, Jules

The anarchist Goirand, also known under the pseudonym Transcoserp, was 41 in 1936. He was a member of the Century probably from its creation until at least the end 1937.

Grignon

Grignon was the ‘political delegate’ of the century in February 1937.

Grimalt, Paul

No further information.

Hachon, Gaston

No further information.

Jorat, Georges

This was the pseudonym adopted by the 16 year old Georges Sossenko in order to prevent his parents tracking him down. He was present at Caspe, at Azaila and on the Ebro.

Léger, Robert

Born in 1915, Léger was a member of the Conseil de la Chambre syndicale des cuisiniers (CGT) font-family:"Times New Roman"'> in Paris, of the Jeunesses syndicalistes "Times New Roman"'>and of the Jeunesses anarchistes comunistes, and originally went as a representative of his union to work at the International Brigades’ HQ as a cook.[8] Forced to leave for political reasons, he went to Barcelona, where he worked for internal security and border control. At some point - though it is unclear exactly when - he was also a member of the Centurie S. Faure.

Lemoine, Marius

No further information.

Lesenne, Alfred

No further information.

Letdely, Fernand

No further information.

Leyteron, Jean

No further information.

Martin, Jean

A Martin - but which? - was delegate of the Century at the end of 1936. Jean Martin was still at the front in July 1937.

Martin, Paul

See above.

Mayol, Jean

Mayol was a member of the Century from early on in the war until at least the end of 1937.

Monnard, Georges

Monnard was delegate of the ‘1st Century’ of the IG of the Durruti Column (ie. the S. Faure Century). He was killed in an attack on Quinto in December 1936, having only joined the Century a short while before.

Montagut, Marcel

Is this the same Marcel Montagut who was a member of the Union anarchiste in Paris and managing editor of le Libertaire in 1930-32?

Mougeot, André

Mougeot was a member of the Century around July 1937.

Neveu, René-A.

Neveu was a member of the Century around October 1936.

O., S.

O., S. was a member of the Century around July 1937.

Odéon, Pierre

The 33 year old Odéon was a leading member of the UA, the Comité pour l’Espagne libre font-family:"Times New Roman"'> and, later, Solidarité internationale antifasciste "Times New Roman"'>. At the front at Caspe in August 1936, he helped create the Century. Having returned to do propaganda work in France in September, he rejoined the Century and took part in battles at Farlete and Perdiguera.

Ortolani, René

No further information.

Patou, Lucien

No further information.

Roche, Georges Joseph

Roche was with the Century from October 1936 to January 1937. When arrested on his return to France, he told police he had been ‘recruited’ by the UA.

Rohard, Fernand

No further information.

Rousseles, Albert

No further information.

Segara, Augustin

No further information.

Turmo, Antoine

The anarcho-syndicalist Turmo was a member of the Century until at least November 1936.

Wittner, Alexander

No further information.

 

 

APPENDIX 5:

 

 

 

Twenty-four members of the Section française, Barcelona, July 1936 - May 1937

 

Bernard

A CNT report accuses Bernard of having written a “fantastical, poetic report” about Augustin Souchy’s activities in Germany on the basis of material given him by the DAS. The report also claims that Bernard, along with Marchal, was asked by the CNT Propaganda Bureaux to do a tour of French volunteers in the International Brigades, and that they refused on the grounds they had things to do in France.

Is this the same Bernard who was a leader of the Fédération libertaire "Times New Roman"'> of Béziers (Hérault) in 1926?

Chatris

Joint treasurer with Pantais, at least as early as December 1936 and until March 1937.

Chauvet, Etienne

Elected Section representative at the Spartacus Barracks in March 1937. Also a member of the Durruti Column.

Chéron, Georges

Chéron was a member of the Section in March 1937. According to one source, Chéron was a militiaman and also worked in the armaments industries; at first a supporter of the POUM, he later moved to the CNT. According to the DBMOF, he was in the PC until 1934, then in the trotskyist PCI and POI; he fought with a POUM unit. He also fought on the barricades in May 1937.

Danjean, Henri

No further information.

Danon, Félix

Elected librarian/archivist in March 1937.

Defèche, Emile

Defèche was a member of the French Section and of the CNT. He was also a combatant - with the IG of the Durruti Column according to one source, the Hilario Zamora Column according to another.

Dessaigne

In January 1937, Dessaigne was delegated by the Section, along with Danjean, Fortin and Schlauder, to approach the Regional Committee of the CNT about the lack of financial support.

Dupoux, Jean

Delegate in Barcelona of the Fédération anarchiste française.

Fortin, Fernand

Fortin was propaganda delegate of the Section until he was expelled in April 1937 after a political dispute (see Berry 1989). He was a member of both the CNT and the FAI (he was the representative of the ‘Mimosa’ FAI group), and worked for the CNT-FAI propaganda section. He was allowed regular visits to the Carcel Modelo 10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman"'> as official representative of the French anarchist prisoners. According to the DBMOF, he was also a combatant.

François, Roger

Section representative at the Spartacus Barracks until February 1937, when he resigned. [See appendix 6]

Henry/Henri

Henry/Henri was a member of the Commission administrative of the FAF. He was a member of the Section in January 1937.

Lobel, Alfred

This 57 year-old, Parisian métallo was a delegate to the Union départementale CGTSR of Isère. Lobel fought with the anarchist militias on the Saragossa front and was a vigorous opponent of ‘militarisation’. He was elected assistant secretary of the French Section in March 1937, but by December he was back in Grenoble.

In a report to the CNT, Lobel was accused of having worked with the &#822French secret police” and of having published a damaging article in the “police press”.

Marchal, Charles Fernand

A member of the FAF, Marchal did propaganda work on the Madrid front, according to the Seccion Francesa de Propaganda CNT-FAI. According to a report to the CNT, he was asked by the CNT Propaganda Bureaux, along with Bernard, to do a tour of French volunteers in the International Brigades, and they refused, claiming they had things to do in France.

Mirande, Alexandre

Mirande was elected the CGTSR’s representative in Spain by the Conseil confédéral national of 23 October 1936; the AIT Paris Plenum, 15-17 November 1936 elected him its representative with the CNT. He attended French Section meetings in November 1936.

Mouret/Muret/Meuret, Raymond

Also a member of the Durruti Column, Mouret fought at Farlete. He would be elected to the secretariat of ARME at its constituent assembly in Paris in April 1938.

Odette

Odette was a member of the Section in January 1937.

Pantais, Roger[9]

A 22 year-old self-employed car mechanic, Roger Pantais arrived in Spain in August 1936 and left in May 1937. He was joint treasurer of the French Section with Chatris, at least as early as December 1936 and until March 1937. He also attended meetings of the Comité anarchiste international "Times New Roman"'>. He was at Durruti’s funeral, and in Barcelona in May 1937: “Pour nous Français la situation devient difficile”. He returned to Puigcerdá (after the death of Antonio Martin), where he took part in patrols with Italian comrades before returning to France.

Philippe

Having served as a militiaman on the Aragon front, Philippe took part in the French Section tour of the front at the end of 1936. He visited Danon and other French prisoners in the Carcel Modelo in summer 1937.

Prince, René

Prince - pseudonym of Georges Marcel Desbois - was a representative of the FAF in Barcelona.

René

René was the Section’s driver. He also used to visit the French prisoners in the Carcel Modelo font-family:"Times New Roman"'>.

Schlauder, Marcel

Schlauder was secretary of the French Section by December 1936 at the latest, and was re-elected in March 1937. According to a report to the CNT, Schlauder and others wanted the Section to take part in security operations, but they were refused by Escorza (the Spanish comrade responsible) because of their &#822past behaviour”.

Is this the same Schlauder who in 1934 was one of the secretaries of the CGTSR groupe intercorporatif font-family:"Times New Roman"'> of Marseille?

Schwab, Julien

Schwab was referred to in a report to the CNT as being a member of the Section; he was also criticized for the damage he had allegedly done to the propaganda effort. He was arrested in May 1937.

Styr-Nhair

A member of the Section from at least February 1937, Styr-Nhair was elected treasurer in March 1937. He also worked as a propagandist for the CNT-FAI until April or May 1938.

 

 

APPENDIX 6:

 

 

Victims of political repression? French libertarians imprisoned in Spain during the civil war

 

 

Alary, Lucien

Alary was imprisoned in the Carcel Modelo. He was released at the same time as P. Vaucher.

 

Cardeur, Alexis

In April or May 1937, Cardeur, a professional soldier who had been military leader of the ‘International Company’ of the Durruti Column since March, was appointed commander of the ‘Batallion IAA’, which is what the International Company was changed into after it was almost wiped out in battles for Ermita Santa Quiteria in April. The Batallion went back to the Aragon front on 7 June, but was disbanded on 22 July after refusing to attack with insufficient armaments. At some point later, Cardeur was arrested on charges of having squandered his batallion’s funds, and imprisoned. He seems still to have been in prison in October 1938.

 

Colin

According to an undated letter from Danon to Fortin, Colin was an inmate of the Carcel Modelo.

 

Crespin, Charles

In a letter to Souchy, Crespin described himself as a long-time anarchist and syndicalist. He was one of the founders of the Syndicat des mécaniciens dentistes "Times New Roman"'> in France. In Spain he was a member of the Syndicat de Sanitat CNT. He was a friend of André Robert of the FAF and of Guérault of l’Espagne Antifasciste. He had served four months at the front with the IG of the Durruti Column, but left - after what he describes as a disagreement between the Quartier Général de Pina and the International Column - intending to join a CNT or FAI unit. He was recruited in February to track down French fascists in Barcelona. He was arrested without explanation on 7 April and imprisoned in the Carcel Modelo on the 8th. He protested his innocence of anything improper.

 

Danon, Félix

Danon was a member of the UA and had been a member of the anarchist group of the 3rd and 4th arrondissements of Paris since the 1920s. In Barcelona, he was a member of the FAI group, ‘Mimosa’, and assistant secretary of the French group of the CNT. A musician, he was also a member of the Syndicat des Profesiones Liberales, Seccion Maestros (CNT).

Danon was arrested on 13 June 1937 and imprisoned in the Carcel Modelo; released “by mistake” on the 16th, he was rearrested the same day. He was charged - though never tried - with having taken part in the illegal occupation by French anarchists of the Casa del Metge in Barcelona. He was also accused of theft. Although technically in charge of the militiamen who allegedly occupied and ransacked the Casa del Metge (opposite the CNT Regional Committee building), Danon protested his innocence, arguing that it was a political conspiracy: there was no evidence against him, there had been no trial, he had all the necessary official papers, his imprisonment was unjustifiable. While in prison, Danon was the delegate of the French group. In the spring of 1938, he suffered from typhus and recovered only thanks to the Mujeres libres. He was eventually released on 9 June 1938.

 

Espigulet, Michel

Espigulet was arrested by the NKVD for possession of arms, according to le Libertaire (11 November 1937). According to Danon writing on 7 July 1937, Espigulet had just been admitted to the Carcel Modelo along with ‘Marseille’ (Lacrosille) with what Danon thought a “somewhat suspicious story”.

 

Farah, Georges

Farah, a member of the Italian Battalion of the Ascaso Division, was arrested on 27 April 1937 and imprisoned in the Carcel Modelo “for the Gambrinus bomb affair” (?). He was released on 5 July 1937. He left 50 pesetas for the subscription that had been opened in favour of prisoners in the Carcel Modelo.

 

François, Roger

François was arrested by NKVD agents during or soon after the May Days of 1937.

 

Froment, André

The Sección Francesa de Propaganda CNT-FAI "Times New Roman"'> notes simply that Froment, a worker in the armaments industries, was or had been in prison.

 

Germain, Georges

Germain was in the Carcel Modelo in May 1938. Having fought with the Iron Column from March to July 1937, he was “Detenido cuando regresaba a Francia, despues de haber curado su herida y haberse dado de baja de su columna.”

 

Gomez, Henri

Gomez was a prisoner in the Carcel Modelo, according to a letter of Danon’s dated 24 September 1937. He had been arrested by the Tcheka for attempting to smuggle capital out of the country.

 

Gorloff, Léonide

Gorloff was arrested on 7 May 1937. He was still in the Carcel Modelo in September.

 

Gotcheff

In August 1937, Gotcheff was in the Carcel Modelo infirmary with TB. He had been about to enter a sanatorium when arrested.

 

Guilbert, Marcel

According to Saïda’s article on ‘La répression stalino-bourgeoise en Espagne’ in le Libertaire (11 November 1937), Guilbert was one of those arrested by the NKVD in 1937.

 

Kasentcheff, Cristo

Kasentcheff was in the Carcel Modelo in September 1937. He claimed to have been arrested because there was a stamp missing in his passport.

 

Lacroisille, Henri

This 29 year-old, Parisian CGTSR activist, known in the French movement as ‘Marseille’, was in Spain from September 1936 to February 1939, and fought with the Durruti Column and with the 124th Brigada Mixta. He was also a member of the CNT. He was arrested by the NKVD early in July 1937, accused of possession of firearms, and imprisoned in the Carcel Modelo "Times New Roman"'>. According to my sources, he arrived in gaol with Espigulet; according to the DBMOF, he was arrested in the company of Guilbert, Ladmiral and Lhébert (see all these names). He gave his name to the Commission juridique "Times New Roman"'> as Lacroisille-Pécond, Henri. Danon was so suspicious of Lacroisille and Espigulet that he wrote to Fortin comparing them with G. Weil and asking him to check their stories. They were both members, according to Danon, of the “notorious accounts commission of a section which was dissolved because the three or four freeloaders who formed it disappeared like smoke when the first shots were fired in May.”

 

Ladmiral, Gaston

A militiaman, Ladmiral was one of five French volunteers held in the Hotel Falcon by the NKVD after the May Days of 1937. He was later imprisoned in the Carcel Modelo. Depending on the source, Ladmiral was an anarchist or a member of the Jeunesses socialistes révolutionnaires and PSOP or “difficult to define” politically.

 

Legrand, Gaston

Legrand, a CGT member, seems to have been a militiaman in Spain, but in May 1938 was in the Carcel Modelo accused of having squandered his batallion’s funds - which he denied.

 

Lévysse

Lévysse was one of five French anarchist volunteers held in the Hotel Falcon by the NKVD after the May days of 1937.

 

Métant, Fernand

A member of the Durruti Column IG (since at least October 1936) and of the CNT-FAI, Métant returned from the front in February 1937. He was working legally in Barcelona when arrested by the NKVD and imprisoned in the Carcel Modelo. It is not known when he was released, but he was married in Barcelona on 29 March 1938.

 

Millon, Jean

Millon, who fought with the Los Aguiluchos Column, was shot as a spy. We have no further information.

 

Pantais, Raymond

After the May Days of 1937, Pantais was arrested in Puigcerdá, along with some Spanish comrades, by communists or by government carabiniers, depending on the source. After the intervention of a French woman (possibly Mme Prince) with the French authorities in Bourg Madame, Pantais was expelled after a few days in prison; his Spanish comrades were executed.

 

Parot, Gaston

A member of the ‘Patrullas de control’ in Barcelona, Parot was imprisoned in the Carcel Modelo "Times New Roman"'> after the May Days. The French Section protested publicly against his arrest. He was still in prison in mid-August.

 

Prince, René & Mme

Prince and his partner were arrested at some time between May and July 1937.

 

Ruiz, Amador

According to the Barcelona French Section, Ruiz was French. A militiaman, he had spent several months at the front. He was arrested in Barcelona in 1937.

 

Schwab, Julien

On 26 May 1937, Schwab was arrested by the Delegación Orden Public and imprisoned in the Carcel Modelo. According to Danon, Schwab claimed to be the correspondent of L’Indomptable (a French-language CNT paper in Valencia) and delegate of “a certain number of more or less well known groups in the Midi”. He seems to have been a supporter of the CGTSR. He was also well-known for his frequent travels. He wrote several letters to the French Consul asking him to intervene. He appears to have been released on 22 September 1937.

 

Schwarz

Schwarz was one of five French anarchist volunteers held in the Hotel Falcon by the NKVD after the May days of 1937.

 

Staés, Maurice

Staés was a militia fighter. He was being held in the Carcel Modelo in May 1938.

 

Thourault

Thourault fought with one of the CNT-FAI militias on the Aragon front. On the way home to France on leave with fellow anarchist and militiaman Tissier, he was stopped by a political commissar with the International Brigades (allegedly brother of the communist José Diaz) who was on border control. Booklets by Kropotkin, Malatesta and Leval were confiscated on the grounds that they were ‘Fascist literature’. They were told to go through the Cerbère tunnel into France and assured that their money and personal possessions would be sent through to them after being examined. When this did not happen, Tissier returned to the Spanish side and was then arrested.

 

Tissier, Charles

See Thourault.

 

Tricheux, Alphonse

A veteran of the Toulouse UA group, Tricheux and his wife Pauline had been founder members of the Puigcerdá French Section in July 1936. In June 1937, he was arrested and held for two weeks, accused of having stolen 200,000 pesetas.

 

Tricheux, Eugène

One of the sons of Alphonse and Pauline, Tricheux was a prisoner in the Carcel Modelo, according to a letter of Danon’s dated 24 September 1937. He had been arrested by the Tcheka, along with his friend Henri Gomez, for involvement in an escape attempt. Gomez - about whom we know nothing else - was arrested for attempting to smuggle capital out of the country.

 

Tricheux, Marius

According to an article on ‘La répression stalino-bourgeoise en Espagne’ in le Libertaire "Times New Roman"'>, Tricheux was one of the those arrested by the NKVD in 1937. He was released some weeks later.

 

Tricheux,Noëla

The daughter of Alphonse and Pauline, Tricheux was being held in gaol in Puigcerdá in June/July 1937, along with her mother.

 

Tricheux, Pauline

See under Tricheux, Alphonse & Noëla.

 

Urvoas, Yvan Noël

Urvoas was of Russian origin, according to Danon, but had been brought up in France. He was arrested on 17 February 1937, apparently for not having any papers. He was still in the Carcel Modelo "Times New Roman"'> in August.

 

Vaucher, Pierre

Vaucher was a militiaman with the Italian Battalion of the Ascaso Division. He was arrested on 7 May 1937 and imprisoned in the Carcel Modelo until at least August. He was released at the same time as Alary, according to an undated letter from Danon.

 

Weil, Gaston

Weil, a militiaman, was imprisoned in the Carcel Modelo on suspicion of being responsible for the squandering of his battalion’s funds. Danon seems to have believed him guilty.

 



[1] The total must of course be significantly greater than this, but it would be hazardous to even guess at a figure given the present state of our knowledge.

[2] Casteu (née Trébuquet), the estranged wife of the better-known Segond Casteu, had herself been an anarchist for many years. She was killed at the front in a nationalist bombardment, whilst visiting her wounded brother.

[3] About 170 members of the International Group died at Perdiguera. It is not known how many of the other 155 or so were French.

[4] See Charles Ridel, ‘A ceux qui sont tombés’ in le Libertaire (23 October 1936). This and other articles sent back from the front by Charles Ridel (aka L. Mercier) have been collected and reprinted: Louis Mercier, En route pour Saragosse avec la colonne Durruti (Lausanne: CIRA/NOIR, 1997).

[5] Charles Ridel, ‘A ceux qui sont tombés’ in le Libertaire (23 October 1936).

[6] Abel Paz, Durruti. The People Armed (New York: Black Rose Books, 1977), p.276-77. According to Paz, Emile Cottin - the French anarchist famous for his attempted assassination of Clemenceau - also died at Perdiguera. A machine -gunner with the Durruti Column International Group, he in fact he died during a successful counter-attack at Farlete on 8 September 1936. See Berry 1989, p.447.

[7] DBMOF; Charles Ridel, ‘A ceux qui sont tombés’ in le Libertaire (23 October 1936).

[8] Most of the 19 other volunteer cooks sent to Albacete were also either anarchists or revolutionary socialists - we know nothing more about them.

 

[9] According to Pantais, the Section française had about 50 members.


Contributor : CREAGH Ronald

To cite this page:
French Volunteers in Spain 1936 - 1939 : Contribution to a Collective Biography of the French Anarchist Movement, What's new: 6 March 2004. [Online].
http://raforum.info/spip.php?article240
[Accessed on 1 October 2014]



BERRY, David
Also by

puce grise AA - Berry, David. "French Anarchist Volunteers in Spain, 1936-39: Contribution to a Collective Biography of the French Anarchist Movement" - Appendix 4 -
puce grise AA - Berry, David. "French Anarchist Volunteers in Spain, 1936-39: Contribution to a Collective Biography of the French Anarchist Movement" - Appendix 3 -
puce grise AA - Berry, David. "French Anarchist Volunteers in Spain, 1936-39: Contribution to a Collective Biography of the French Anarchist Movement" - Appendix 6 -
puce grise AA - ‘Fascism or Revolution!’ Anarchism and Antifascism in France, 1933-39
puce grise AA - Berry, David. "French Anarchist Volunteers in Spain, 1936-39: Contribution to a Collective Biography of the French Anarchist Movement" - Appendix 1 -
puce grise AA - Berry, David. "French Anarchist Volunteers in Spain, 1936-39: Contribution to a Collective Biography of the French Anarchist Movement" - Appendix 5 -
puce grise AA - French Anarchist Volunteers in Spain, 1936-39:
puce grise AA - Berry, David. "French Anarchist Volunteers in Spain, 1936-39: Contribution to a Collective Biography of the French Anarchist Movement"

More on this subject:

puce rouge  BERRY, David (1957 - ....).    — Quoted
puce rouge  BERRY, David    — Author
puce rouge  COTTIN Emile (14 mars 1896 à Creil - 8 octobre 1936)    — Quoted
puce rouge  French   
puce rouge  Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)   


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